Glyoxylic acid consists of an aldehyde group (-CHO) and a carboxyl group (-COOH). Glyoxylic acid structural formula is HOCCOOH. Glyoxylic acid molecular formula is C2H2O3. molecular weight is 74.04.

Glycolic acid is mainly used as a flavoring agent and fixing agent for cosmetics, flavoring agent for daily chemicals, and flavoring agent for food. It is also used as an intermediate in pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics and pesticides. Also, glyoxylic acid is the raw material for making vanillin.

NameGlyoxylic acid, Oxoacetic acidMelting Point98°C
Chemical FormulaC2H2O3Boiling Point111°C
Molecular Weight74.04Density1.3g/ml
CAS No.298-12-4AppearanceAqueous solution is light yellow
Molar Mass74.04g/mol


  1. Basic Information
  2. Physical & Chemical Properties
  3. Numbering System
  4. Ecological Data
  5. Molecular Structure Data
  6. Properties & Stability
  7. Storage Methods
  8. Synthesis Methods
  9. Packaging
  10. Industrial Uses
  11. Safety Information
  12. Safety Terms
  13. Risk Terms

Basic Information

Product name: Glyoxylic acid

English Alias: Acetic acid, xo-; Glyoxalate; glyoxylate; oxoacetate

CAS No.: 298-12-4

EINECS: 206-058-5

Molecular formula: C2H2O3

Molecular weight: 74.04

Physical & Chemical Properties

Relative density(d204): 1.384

Refractive index(n20D): 1.403

Boiling point: 111°C

Melting point: 98°C

Flash point: 103.9°C

Vapor pressure: 0.0331mmHg at 25°C

Appearance: Glyoxalic acid is a white crystal with unpleasant odor, and the aqueous solution is a colorless or light yellow transparent liquid.

Solubility: Soluble in water, the aqueous solution is yellow; insoluble in ether, ethanol and benzene, etc. Exposed to air for a short time, it can absorb moisture and become pulpy, corrosive.

Hazard: Toxic, corrosive, can irritate skin and mucous membrane. 40% of the product has an oral LD50 of 70mg/kg for rats. operators should pay attention to wear good labor protection equipment, and rinse with plenty of water when it gets on the skin.

Numbering System

CAS No.:298-12-4

MDL No.: MFCD00006958

EINECS No.:206-058-5

RTECS No.:MD4550000

BRN No.:741891

Ecological Data

Other harmful effects: The glyoxylic acid may be harmful to the environment and special attention should be paid to water.

Molecular Structure Data

Molar refractive index: 13.06

Molar volume: 53.4

Isotropic specific volume(90.2K):142.3

Surface tension (dyne/cm): 50.2

Polarization rate:5.17

Properties & Stability

It is toxic, corrosive, and can irritate skin and mucous membranes. 40% of the product has an oral LD50 of 70mg/kg for rats. operators should be careful to wear good protective gear and rinse with plenty of water when it gets on the skin.

It is found in tobacco leaves.

Irritant, corrosive.

Storage Methods

Store and transport according to the regulations of toxic chemicals. Store in a cool, dry and ventilated place and transport according to the regulations for toxic chemicals. Storage temperature 4°C.

Synthesis Methods

1. Oxalic acid electrolysis method

2. Glyoxal oxidation method

3. Dichloroacetic acid method

4. Maleic anhydride oxidation reduction method


200L plastic pail.

Industrial Uses

Glyoxylic acid is a basic organic chemical material. Ethyl vanillin, made from glyoxylic acid, is widely used as a flavoring agent and fixing agent for cosmetics, as a flavoring agent for daily chemicals, and as a flavoring agent for food. Allantoin made from glyoxylic acid. It is used as a good healing agent for skin wounds, an additive for high-grade cosmetics and a plant growth regulator. In medicine, glyoxylic acid is used to prepare p-hydroxyphenylglycine (raw material for hydroxybenzyl penicillin and cefadroxil), p-hydroxyphenylacetamide (used to make atil, an effective substance for treating cardiovascular diseases and hypertension), as well as p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, p-hydroxyphenylhydantoin and other pharmaceutical products.

Safety Information

Safety markings: S26S38S45S36/S37/S39S37/S39

Danger markings: R34R41R43

Safety Terms

1. Avoid skin contact.

2. After inadvertent contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.

3. Wear appropriate gloves and goggles or mask.

Risk Terms

1. Serious damage to eyes.

2. May cause sensitization in contact with skin.


Related Terms

  • glyoxylic acid molecular weight
  • glyoxylic acid structure
  • glyoxylic acid toxicity
  • glyoxylic acid pka
  • glyoxylic acid preparation
  • glyoxylic acid reaction
  • glyoxylic acid cycle
  • glyoxylic acid 50
  • glyoxylic acid formaldehyde
  • glyoxylic acid hair treatment
  • glyoxylic acid hair products