This article presents the Triazine Herbicides market overview and trends. The global market was $1,399 million in 2018. The year-on-year growth is 8.3%. The market is expected to reach $1,690 million in 2023. The market development situation and development trend of the leading varieties of triazine herbicides such as atrazine, metribuzin, metamitron, indaziflam and ametryn in recent years are highlighted.
As an important class of herbicides, triazine herbicides have played an important role in agricultural production. It has the advantages of wide herbicidal spectrum, long application window, and low cost of use. There is hardly a new herbicide product that can be comparable to it.
In recent years, the main varieties of triazine herbicides are against glyphosate-resistant weeds. As well as with the p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitor class of herbicides used in combination. This has led to a renewed interest in this class of herbicides.
1. Market Overview
The global pesticide market sales in 2018 amounted to $57.561 billion, of which sales of herbicides reached $27.395 billion. This represents a year-on-year growth of 5.6%.
The decrease in pesticide production capacity in China caused an increase in product prices. Multiple factors such as increased demand for pesticide products in important regional markets such as Brazil are overlapping. These reasons have driven the growth of the herbicide market.
Triazine herbicides have long occupied an important position in the pesticide market, and once occupied the top position in herbicide sales.
At the beginning of the 21st century, due to the high dosage of such herbicides, long residual period, long-term, single-use after the resistance, residual problems highlighted, the impact on the environment and human health. As well as the new herbicides on the market, the promotion, and application of herbicide-tolerant crops and other multiple factors. Triazine herbicides market has shrunk and the market position has declined.
Sales of triazine herbicides were above $1.3 billion in 1998, and the global market fell to $540 million in 2003. Since then, the triazine herbicide market has grown in a balance of pros and cons. 2010-2013, the triazine herbicide market grew faster. Sales rose from $998 million in 2010 to $1.370 billion in 2013. 2014-2015 saw a decline in sales of triazine herbicides due to the shrinking global pesticide market. after 2016, triazine herbicides showed growth. and achieved a new sales high of $1.399 billion in 2018. The year-on-year growth was 8.3%. 2013-2018 CAGR was 0.7%.
Global sales of triazine herbicides accounted for 2.1% of the global agrochemical market and 5.2% of the herbicides market in 2018. In the ranking of herbicide sales, triazine herbicides were ranked 7th. It is ranked after amino acids, sulfonylureas, amides, hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitors, other ALS classes, and aromatic phenoxy propionate herbicides. The sales of triazine herbicides in recent years are shown in Figure 1.
The major contributing factors to the growth of the triazine herbicides market in recent years include the significant occurrence and spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds. Pre-emergence selective herbicides, including triazine herbicides, have seen significant growth in usage. Further growth in acreage of crops such as sugarcane, fruits and vegetables and increased market demand, especially in Brazil. The use of combination with other classes of herbicides, especially the combination of this class of herbicides with HPPD inhibiting herbicides, is further driving its market growth.
2. R&D and Application
The 1st triazine herbicide simazine was developed and marketed by Syngenta in 1956. It is mainly used in corn, fruits and vegetables, and oilseed rape. global sales were $35 million in 2018. Simazine was not renewed after its registration in the EU expired.
The 2nd triazine herbicide, atrazine, was marketed in 1957. This variety played a decisive role in the global market position of triazine herbicides. It is the first major species of triazine herbicides.
The majority of the currently commercialized triazine herbicides were marketed in the 1960s and 1970s and developed rapidly in the 1980s.
The two most recent triazine herbicides to be marketed are triaziflam, marketed by Idemitsu Kosan in 2006, and indaziflam, marketed by Bayer in 2011. The chemical structures of both differ significantly from the previously marketed triazine herbicide varieties. They have a more complex structure and the introduction of fluorine atoms.
It is worth mentioning that triaziflam is mainly used in water fields, unlike traditional triazine herbicides for drylands. The structures of triazine herbicides such as triaziflam and indaziflam are shown in Figure 2.
Triazine herbicides act on the D1 protein of plant photosystem II (PS II). It inhibits photosynthesis in plants by affecting electron transfer.
This class of herbicides is selective herbicides. It is mainly used on corn, soybean, sugarcane, and fruits and vegetables. Usually soil or stem and leaf treatments are used to control broadleaf weeds and grass weeds.
The use of triazine herbicides has been more controversial over the years. Some of these species are banned or restricted in the EU region and some other countries. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has conducted several biological evaluations of triazine herbicides over the years.
In March 2020, the revised Biological Assessment Methodology for Nationally Protected Listed Species of Conventional Pesticides was published in the U.S. Based on this assessment methodology, EPA reassessed the impacts of key species of triazine herbicides on species and habitats using new modeling techniques.
Based on the test results, atrazine, simazine and propazine were determined to have a “likely adverse effect (LAA)” on the species and habitat. Among them, atrazine may adversely affect 54% of the species and 40% of the critical habitats. Propazine may adversely affect 4% of species and 2% of critical habitats. Simazine may adversely affect approximately 53% of species and 40% of critical habitats.
3. Leading products
A total of 13 triazine herbicides are currently on the market. Most of them are old varieties of herbicides.
There are 11 varieties marketed from the 1950s to 1970s. From the perspective of the global market, old variety herbicides occupy a large market volume, and the market sales are basically stable.
In 2018, atrazine topped the list with sales of $655 million, accounting for almost 50% of the global market for triazine herbicides. Metribuzin, metamitron, and cyromazine accounted for 12.9%, 8.8%, and 8.1% of the global market for triazine herbicides, respectively, with sales above $100 million.
The newly launched varieties maintain the lead in the triazine herbicides. The market for indaziflam is growing strongly. at a CAGR of 16.8% from 2013-2018. Triaziflam grew at a CAGR of 8.4% from 2013-2018. However, the global market volume for both is relatively small. Did not have a significant positive impact on the global market for triazine herbicides. Global sales of indaziflam were $87 million in 2018. Triaziflam sales were below USD 0.1 billion.
This section will introduce the development and registration, production and market trends of the leading triazine herbicides such as atrazine, metribuzin, metamitron, cyromazine, indaziflam and ametryn in recent years.
Atrazine is one of the most widely used pesticide species. Atrazine has occupied an important position in the triazine herbicide market for many years. It is the largest variety of triazine herbicides.
Atrazine is not only the most important triazine herbicide but also an important herbicide.
In 2018, global sales of atrazine accounted for 46.8% share of the triazine herbicide market, ranking 5th among herbicide varieties. Its global sales reached USD 655 million, a significant increase of 11% year-on-year. It grew at a CAGR of 3.1% from 2013-2018. Global sales of atrazine in recent years are shown in Table-1.
|Year||Sales, billion dollars||Year-on-year Growth, %|
Atrazine is an old variety herbicide that was introduced in the 1950s. However, its low cost and good compatibility make it still one of the most widely used products in corn fields.
In 2018, atrazine ranked No. 2 among the top 10 leading herbicides for corn, second only to glyphosate. It was followed by spermiphos-methyl, netsulfuron, ethephon, nicosulfuron, and cyclosulfuron.
Atrazine plays an important role in weed control in corn fields in the United States, Brazil, China, Vietnam, Argentina, and Mexico. It is the second most used herbicide in the United States. Atrazine accounts for more than 98% of its total use of corn, sorghum and sugarcane. More than 30,000 tons of atrazine are used annually on more than 30 million hm2 of crop fields.
Atrazine is also an important herbicide species for sugarcane, cereals, oilseed rape, fruits and vegetables. It is widely used in oilseed rape in Australia, and sugarcane fields in Thailand and Mexico.
Atrazine is a broad-spectrum, systemic herbicide. It has a strong selectivity. It is widely used in corn, sugarcane, cereals, oilseed rape, fruits and vegetables, lawns, and non-agricultural fields. It is used to prevent and control annual grass weeds and broadleaf weeds, such as martan, barnyard grass, dogwood, sedge, seegrass, polygonum, quinoa, cruciferous weeds, leguminous weeds, etc. Atrazine is also effective against some perennial weeds.
Atrazine can be applied before planting, pre-emergence and post-emergence of crops. The dosage of active ingredient is 0.45~4.5kg/hm2. After application, it is mainly absorbed by roots and easily leached to deeper soil by rain. Therefore, it is also effective against some deep-rooted grasses.
In addition, atrazine is effective against glyphosate weeds and several atrazine-based products have been added to the Roundup Ready Plus program for pre-emergence applications.
Atrazine is used in large quantities, has a long duration of action, and is prone to damage to sensitive crops in the next crop. In production, it is generally used in combination or mixed with other herbicides of the mechanism of action. On the one hand, to reduce the amount of use, to avoid the occurrence of drug damage. On the other hand, to delay the development of resistance and extend the life cycle.
There are numerous species that are used in combination with atrazine. They include alachlor, etofenpropathrin, butachlor, (refined) iprodione, 2 methyl 4 chlorine, octanoyl bromoxynil, flumioxazin, fluthiacet, dicamba, metolachlor, nitrofurazone, isoxaflutole, dimethoate, dichloroquinolinic acid, sulfometuron, diuron, chlorothalonil, nicosulfuron, sulfometuron, sulfoxaflutole, benazolin, etc.
Studies have shown that atrazine has adverse effects on endangered fish, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles. There is a sex-reversal effect on frogs. Long-term exposure to atrazine can affect the human immune, lymphatic, reproductive, and endocrine systems. Atrazine is potentially carcinogenic. It is listed as an endocrine disruptor in the US, Japan, EU, and other countries and regions.
In addition, atrazine is used in large quantities and is persistent, and residues in soil or sediment can enter surface water or groundwater through surface runoff, leaching, and wet deposition, posing a threat to the ecological environment and human water sources.
Based on the above research results, countries have strengthened the regulation of atrazine, and China, EU, USA and Japan have regulated the residue limits of atrazine in surface water and food.
The controversy over the use of atrazine has never stopped. This has led to many lawsuits. Some countries have imposed bans on the use of atrazine.
In July 2003, the European Union did not renew the registration of atrazine.
In 2017, Uruguay withdrew the registration of atrazine. Its products were only used until March 2018.
In 2019, Nigeria’s National Agency for Food and Drug Control (NAFDAC) stated that it would ban the use of atrazine products.
In May 2020, India issued a ban. Twenty-seven pesticide species, including atrazine, may not be imported, manufactured, sold, transported, distributed, or used.
Atrazine has been banned in Switzerland, and in October 2020, the Swiss government announced a ban on the export of atrazine products as of January 2021.
The World Health Organization, the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, among others, consider atrazine to be within the safe threshold in the environment. A number of countries have still approved its registration renewal. These countries include the United States, Canada, Australia, Ukraine, etc.
Since 2013, EPA has conducted periodic reviews of atrazine.
In 2016, EPA issued a notice stating that the cumulative risk associated with triazine herbicides was below EPA’s level of concern (LOC).
In November 2018, EPA evaluated that no risks of concern were found for atrazine, propazine, and simazine when exposed to diets such as drinking water for the three triazine herbicides. However, they present some potential risks to children, and to workers who formulate, apply, and transport them.
In September 2020, EPA made a decision to temporarily register atrazine based on the findings of the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) assessment. However, based on the potential risks to children, water bodies, etc., EPA has attached new use protections to the interim registration. For example, the dosage on residential lawns was reduced. Personal protective equipment is required for use. Take effective measures to control spray drift. And take the necessary measures for resistance management, etc.
Meanwhile, atrazine registrants such as Syngenta, ADAMA, and Sipcam have withdrawn their registrations in Hawaii, Alaska, and the U.S. Overseas Territories.
On U.S. soil, in addition to banning roadside use. They also agreed to revoke the use on conifers, manzanita and bioenergy crops. and limited use to certain states and crop-specific fallow lands.
In November 2021, EPA reassessed atrazine for species and habitat impacts based on a revised evaluation methodology. Atrazine was determined to have the potential to adversely affect species and habitat.
Due to the launch of imidazolinone herbicides and the promotion of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans, the sales of metribuzin fell down to the peak level.
However, the market has since shown a slow recovery trend due to its application crop expansion to potatoes and sugarcane, and has risen from the third largest of the triazine herbicides to the second position.
Global sales of metribuzin were $145 million in 2014. $135 million in 2015. $150 million in 2016. And $180 million in 2018. With a CAGR of 2.4% from 2013-2018.
Metribuzin is mainly used on soybeans, potatoes, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables, etc. It is the leading herbicide for potatoes. Metribuzin has important applications on soybeans in the United States. It has a certain market share in Asia, NAFTA, Latin America, and Europe herbicide markets.
Similar to other triazine herbicides, diazinon is more widely used as a compounding agent. It can be combined with its species including isoxaflutole, ethephon, allylone, sulfometuron, fluthiacet, quinqueflutole, imazamethapyr, spermacetam, nicosulfuron, metsulfuron, chlorimuron-sulfuron, propargite, benzenesulfuron, etc.
The registration of metribuzin in the EU is valid until the end of July 2018. In order to better complete the re-evaluation process, the registration period in the EU has been extended several times. The current registration is valid until July 31, 2021.
As of February 2021, metribuzin has been authorized for registration in 25 countries in the EU. They are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Estonia, Greece, Spain, Finland, France, Croatia, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Latvia, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, etc.
Metamitron is mainly used in sugar beets under the trade name Goltix and has been the leading herbicide for sugar beets for many years. Its main markets are in Europe. Germany is the largest national market for metamitron.
Metamitron is endosynthetic. It is mainly absorbed by the roots of crops, but also by the leaves and conducted to the top. Metamitron is mainly registered for sugar beet. It is highly selective for sugar beet and fodder beet and has good safety.
At present, metamitron has been used in small quantities on apple and pear trees. It is used to control a variety of weeds such as quinoa, lobelia, witch hazel, wild sesame, and early gram.
Metamitron has a long application window and flexible application methods. It can be applied before planting, before seedling and after seedling. It can be applied by soil mixture or soil spray treatment. The dosage of active ingredient is 3.5~5.0 kg/hm2.
In order to expand the herbicidal spectrum and delay the development of resistance, metamitron is often used in combination with Betaine, Ethofumesate, Phenmedipham, Chloridazon, Chlorpropham, and Lenacil.
In September 2009, Metamitron was renewed for registration in the EU. The registration data is protected until August 31, 2019. In order to allow sufficient time for the re-evaluation process, its registration was extended to August 31, 2022.
Metamitron is now authorized in 25 countries in the EU. They are Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Greece, Spain, Finland, France, Croatia, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Latvia, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia.
Hexazinone is a broad-spectrum herbicide. It is mainly touch-killed. It is absorbed through plant leaves and roots and conducted to the top. Post-emergence application. The dosage of the active ingredient is 0.25~13.4 kg/hm2. Hexazinone is formulated with varieties including Diuron, sulfometuron-methyl, Spermetolachlor, etc.
Hexazinone has not been renewed after the expiry of its registration in the EU.
Due to concerns about environmental impacts, Hexazinone was evaluated in Canada beginning in 2014. After a special review, the Canadian Pest Management Agency made the decision to renew the registration in 2019.
Indaziflam is a triazine herbicide developed by Bayer, which is still under patent protection, with a PCT application date of January 23, 2004.
Compared with traditional triazine herbicides, Indaziflam has a newer, more complex chemical structure and better performance than traditional triazine herbicides. Indaziflam is a cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor (CBI). It works by inhibiting cell membrane biosynthesis. It affects the growth of plant meristematic tissues and provides herbicidal effect.
Indaziflam is highly effective and broad-spectrum. Suitable for permanent plants such as plantations, nut trees, industrial vegetation, citrus, grapes, and perennial plants such as sugar cane, lawns, golf courses, and ornamentals. It is also used for the control of grassy weeds and broadleaf weeds.
Indaziflam is also a resistance management tool, effective against acetyl lactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors, glyphosate, triazine herbicides, and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor herbicide weeds.
Unlike other triazine herbicides, the dosage of indaziflam is low. Field trials conducted by Bayer have shown that indaziflam has a shelf life of up to 6 months on grasses and broadleaf weeds. This product not only reduces the amount of herbicide used, the number of applications, and saves labor, but also helps to reduce water consumption, machinery application, and CO2 emissions.
Indaziflam can be used either alone before seeding or in combination with other post-emergence herbicides for post-emergence weeding. Its compounding species include Aquacide, glyphosate, isoxaflutole, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, Dicamba, Penoxsulam, etc.
Ametryn is mainly used in sugarcane. It is also used in corn, fruits and vegetables, cereals, and cotton, etc. In 2018, Ametryn ranked 10th among the top 10 herbicides for sugarcane. The global sugarcane cultivation area is 25.47 million hm2, among which Brazil has the largest cultivation area, followed by India, Thailand, China, Pakistan, Mexico, Australia, etc.
Accordingly, the main sales markets for Ametryn are in Asia and Latin America. Among the herbicides for sugarcane in China, glyphosate has the largest market share, with atrazine in second place, followed by Diquat, Atrazine, Mesotrione, Cyanazine, and 2-methyl-4-chlor.
Ametryn is a selective, systemic, broad-spectrum herbicide. It is absorbed by plant leaves and roots. And is conducted in the xylem to the top. Pre-emergence and post-emergence can be used. The active ingredient dosage is 1~7kg/hm2.
It is registered in China for use on small crops such as pineapple, in addition to sugarcane and corn.
The compounding products of ametryn include oxyfluorfen, cyanazine, acetochlor, Isoxaflutole, bromoxynil, Clomazone, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2-methyl-4-chloro, mesotrione, diuron, halosulfuron methyl, atrazine, terbutryn, trifloxysulfuron, etc.
After the expiration of its registration in the EU, ametryn failed to obtain renewal of its registration.
4. Competitive herbicides
Triazine herbicides are mainly used in corn, soybean, cereals, sugar cane, etc.. In recent years, new products for weed control in corn, cereal and soybean fields have come to market, and competition has become more and more intense. This section briefly describes the new herbicides that may or have been in fierce competition with triazine herbicides in the future.
Tembotrione has a long application window, high activity, low dosage, and is resistant to rainfall. Tembotrione has the advantages of novel mechanism of action, broad herbicidal spectrum, and good adaptability. These advantages will promote its widespread application in more and more corn-growing areas. In the future, it may have fierce competition with triazine herbicides in the herbicide market for corn.
Pyroxasulfone is a new type of pyrazole selective herbicide discovered by Japan Combined Chemical Co. It is suitable for many crops and has a wide herbicidal spectrum, mainly for cereals, soybeans, corn, and cotton. Pyroxasulfone is also used to prevent and control grassy weeds and broadleaf weeds. It has a good control effect on annual grass weeds such as sparrow wheat, see wheat, wild oats, and some annual broad-leaved weeds such as sowing artemisia, shepherd’s purse, and pigweed.
Pyroxasulfone is also effective against weeds that are resistant to glyphosate, ALS inhibitors, ACCase inhibitors, triazines, and other herbicides. Pyroxasulfone is commonly used as a pre-emergence soil treatment. The active ingredient dosage is 125-250g/hm2. The shelf life is up to 85 days.
Pyroxasulfone is a potential inhibitor of VLCFA elongase (very long side chain fatty acid) (C20~C30). It inhibits the biosynthesis of very long side chain fatty acids in plants by It inhibits the growth of seedlings in their early stages. In turn, it destroys meristematic tissue and coleoptile. It eventually leads to plant growth arrest and death.
Pyroxasulfone has good efficacy, suitable for many crops, has high safety, long shelf life, and is environment friendly. It may become a strong competitor of triazine herbicides in the future.
Trifludimoxazin is a new triazinone herbicide developed by BASF. It is a member of the protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitor class of herbicides.
Trifludimoxazin kills weeds by disrupting chlorophyll biosynthesis. It is used on corn, soybeans, citrus, and pear fruit. It is also used for the control of grass weeds and broadleaf weeds. Such as ryegrass, quinoa, cat’s ear, etc. Effective against some resistant weeds. Including difficult to prevent weeds such as Amaranthus spp. and Ambrosia spp..
F9960 is an HPPD inhibitor-based herbicide discovered by Japan’s Combination Chemical Co. It has been acquired and developed by FMC. It is still under development.
F9960 is applicable to a wide range of crops and has a broad spectrum of control. It can be used on corn, soybean, cotton, etc. It can also be used to control broadleaf weeds. Such as ragweed, askew, cedar leaf algae, Canada thistle, dandelion, amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), etc.
F9960 has a novel mechanism of action. It can be used for the control of certain resistant weeds. Therefore, F9960 is expected to become a major product for the control of resistant weeds. It is expected to be available in 2024.
5. Market Outlook
Triazine herbicides were first marketed in 1956, and no new varieties were marketed after 2013, and there are no products under development. Most triazine herbicides are old varieties that have been marketed for a long time. In addition to the original development company, many companies are involved in their production and sales.
At the beginning of the 21st century, the global market for triazine herbicides declined due to the introduction of new herbicide products and restrictions on their use. However, in recent years, the market for triazine herbicides has grown significantly again. Analysis of the reasons for this include.
(1) The broad herbicidal spectrum and lower cost of these products have led to their wider application, especially in developing countries where they are widely used.
(2) The further promotion and application of glyphosate-tolerant corn in the U.S., Argentina and Brazil, and the use of highly selective, low-cost triazine herbicides such as atrazine for pre-emergence weed control, allow it to achieve further growth.
(3) Effective control of certain resistant weeds by triazine herbicides, especially glyphosate-resistant weeds, has led to continued benefits in their market.
(4) The excellent blending properties of triazine herbicides make them the preferred species for many herbicide combinations, especially atrazine, and the launch of a large number of outstanding new combinations has driven sales growth of this species, such as Acuron, a quadruple combination product from Syngenta.
(5) Increased market demand, especially in Brazil, is driven by favorable growth in the acreage of sugarcane, fruit trees, vegetables, and other crops.
The persistence of triazine herbicides, their presence in groundwater, their endocrine disruptive effects on amphibians, and other effects on the environment and on human health have caused concern and worry among pesticide management authorities.
The renewal of registration and application of some varieties are restricted. In light of this, a number of use bans and restrictions were introduced. In the EU, a number of triazine herbicides, including atrazine and simazine, failed to obtain renewal registrations. Thus, they withdrew from the EU market. However, in the recent past, those products that have obtained the renewal of registration in the EU are doing better than before.
Triazine herbicides have seen a decline in their registered use even though they have received renewed registrations in some regions. Atrazine occupies a leading position in the U.S. herbicide market for corn. However, its use is still subject to some restrictions, such as reduced dosage and the use of compounded formulations.
In addition, triazine herbicides are facing several other adverse factors affecting.
(1) Low crop prices. 2017-2018 saw a decrease in sugarcane cultivation in Brazil, which accrued to the use of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides. The market for triazine herbicides was greatly affected.
(2) The development and launch of new herbicides have impacted the market for triazine herbicides.
(3) The emergence and development of resistant weeds had an impact on their market. As early as the late 1960s, scientists discovered triazine herbicide-resistant weeds in corn fields in the U.S. and Europe. As of early 2019, 74 weed species have developed resistance to triazine herbicides, including Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Amaranthus tuberculatus, and resistance will continue to develop.
In response to the development of triazine herbicide resistance, the manufacturers actively explore scientific weed control solutions. Most of the triazine herbicides listed in recent years are compounded products. In particular, they are used in combination with HPPD inhibiting herbicides such as mesotrione and bicyclopyrone. It can not only effectively prevent and eliminate resistant weeds, including resistant Amaranthus longiflorus. And it has improved the market share.
The growth of corn acreage in China, Eastern Europe and Russia, and based on the intensive launch of new triazine herbicide combinations, its market development in the next five years is expected to exceed the previous five years.
The market for triazine herbicides will continue to ebb and flow in a game of pros and cons. The global market for triazine herbicides is expected to reach $1,690 million in 2023. CAGR of 3.9% from 2018-2023.